The role of amino acid side chain oxidation in the formation of amyloid assemblies has been investigated. Chemical oxidation of amino acid side chains has been used as a facile method of introducing mutations on protein structures. Oxidation promotes changes within tertiary contacts that enable identification of residues and interactions critical in stabilizing protein structures. Transthyretin (TTR) is a soluble human plasma protein. The wild-type (WT) and several of its variants are prone to fibril formation, which leads to amyloidosis associated with many clinical syndromes. The effects of amino acid side chain oxidations were investigated by comparing the kinetics of fibril formation of oxidized and unoxidized proteins. The WT and V30M TTR mutant (valine 30 substituted with methionine) were allowed to react over a time range of 10 min to 12 h with hydroxy radical and other reactive oxygen species. In these timescales, up to five oxygen atoms were incorporated into WT and V30M TTR proteins. Oxidized proteins retained their tetrameric structures, as determined by cross-linking experiments. Side chain modification of methionine residues at position 13 and 30 (the latter for V30M TTR only) were dominant oxidative products. Mono-oxidized and dioxidized methionine residues were identified by radical probe mass spectometry employing a footprinting type approach. Oxidation inhibited the initial rates and extent of fibril formation for both the WT and V30M TTR proteins. In the case of WT TTR, oxidation inhibited fibril growth by approximately 76%, and for the V30M TTR by nearly 90%. These inhibiting effects of oxidation on fibril growth suggest that domains neighboring the methionine residues are critical in stabilizing the tetrameric and folded monomer structures.