Although a severe shortage of organs in transplantation can be overcome by using xenotransplantation of porcine donor organs, profound immune rejection to xenogeneic antigens remains a main obstacle. To elucidate the role of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on xenogeneic immune responses, we investigated its effects on porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAECs). We found that H(2)O(2) can specifically induce vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression on PAECs, but little on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Furthermore, we further confirmed that H(2)O(2) induces activation of NFkappaB in PAECs, but not in HAECs. Interestingly, cell adhesion assay showed that U937, human promonocytic leukocyte, can adhere to PAECs in an H(2)O(2)-dependent manner and by using a neutralizing assay with anti-VCAM-1-specific antibodies, we also found that the interaction is mediated primarily by VCAM-1. Finally, we also demonstrated that up-regulation of VCAM-1 expression on PAECs by reactive oxygen species-producing HL-60, human leukemic neutrophil cells, could be significantly diminished by over-expressing an H(2)O(2)-removing catalase. In summary, our results suggest that NFkappaB-dependent porcine VCAM-1 expression by H(2)O(2) may promote interaction of human leukocyte to PAECs, and thus may play an important role on inducing xenogeneic immune responses.