Mice of several strains persistently infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) mount continuous anti-LCMV immune responses leading to the formation and tissue deposition of immune complexes. Such mice carry infectious virus-immunoglobulin (presumably anti-LCMV antibody) complexes in the circulation. We have now determined that anti-LCMV antibody both complexed and free is found in the circulation of mice persistently infected with LCMV. This antibody reacts specifically against the three main LCMV structural polypeptides: nucleoprotein, 63,000 m.w. and two glycopeptides, GP-1 and GP-2 with m.w. of 45,000 and 35,000, respectively. A C1q binding assay was developed and found to be effective in measuring C1Q binding substances (presumably virus-anti-viral Ig complexes) in the circulations of several strains of mice persistently infected with LCMV. With different strains of mice, the levels, time of formation, and fate of C1q binding materials varied markedly. Formation of antibodies to LCMV was correlated with the detection of C1q binding materials. Mice (SWR/J) persistently infected with lactic dehydrogenase virus also form infectious virus-Ig in their sera but deposit minimal amounts of complexes in their tissues. In such mice, C1q binding substances did not form in the circulation.