Using immunohistochemical techniques with p53 monoclonal antibody DO-7 and polymerase chain reaction with type specific primers, we detected the expression of p53 of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (L-HSCC) in 42 patients, tissues around tumor in 25 patients, human papilloma virus (HPV) 16/18 DNA in paraffinembedded carcinoma tissues from 13 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). The results showed that overexpression of p53 was detected in 54.8% (23/42) of L-GSCC and 20% (5/25) of hyperlasia epithelia, respectively. There was no correlation of p53 overexpression with clinical stages and histological grading of tumors (P > 0.05). HPV16 DNA encoding E6 protein was detected in 23.1% (3/13) LSCC tissues by PCR. The results suggest that overexpression of p53 and HPV infection are not only associated with pathogenesis of this kind of cancer but also cooperated during carcinogenesis.