The conjugation of biomolecules by chemoselective oxime ligation is of great interest for the site-specific modification of proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. These conjugations proceed optimally at a reaction pH of 4-5, but some biomolecules are not soluble or stable under these conditions. Aniline can be used as a nucleophilic catalyst to enhance the rate of oxime formation, but even in its presence, the reaction rate at neutral pH can be slower than desired, particularly at low reagent concentrations and/or temperature. Recently, alternative catalysts with improved properties were reported, including anthranilic acid derivatives for small molecule ligations, as well as m-phenylenediamine at high concentrations for protein conjugations. Here, we report that p-substituted anilines containing an electron-donating ring substituent are superior catalysts of oxime-based conjugations at pH 7. One such catalyst, p-phenylenediamine, was studied in greater detail. This catalyst was highly effective at neutral pH, even at the low concentration of 2 mM. In a model oxime ligation using aminooxy-functionalized PEG, catalysis at pH 7 resulted in a 120-fold faster rate of protein PEGylation as compared to an uncatalyzed reaction, and 19-fold faster than the equivalent aniline-catalyzed reaction. p-Phenylenediamine (10 mM) was also an effective catalyst under acidic conditions and was more efficient than aniline throughout the pH range 4-7. This catalyst allows efficient oxime bioconjugations to proceed under mild conditions and low micromolar concentrations, as demonstrated by the PEGylation of a small protein.