In studies on antinucleolar antibodies in sera from 24 patients with scleroderma, an autoimmune disease, one serum, designated "anti-To", contained antibodies against a nucleolar 7-2 ribonucleoprotein and a novel cytoplasmic 8-2 ribonucleoprotein. The 7-2 and 8-2 RNAs are distinct RNAs with a pppG terminus. They are partially conserved between rat and human species and are present in distinct ribonucleoprotein particles. Eight sera contained antibodies that precipitated particles containing nucleolar U3 RNA; these antibodies appear to be directed against preribosomal particles containing U3 ribonucleoprotein, rather than the U3 ribonucleoprotein particles alone. All these ribonucleoproteins required proteins for antigenicity. These antibodies will be of use in studies on the structure and function of these novel small ribonucleoproteins.