Functional transthyretin (TTR) can be transformed into amyloid by partial acid denaturation yielding a monomeric amyloidogenic intermediate which self-associates. The amyloidogenic intermediate has substantial beta-sheet structure with non-native but defined tertiary structure. pH-dependent proteolysis sensitivity studies have identified portions of TTR which become disordered and solvent-exposed in the amyloidogenic intermediate. These include the C-strand-loop D-strand portion of TTR which moves away from the core of the beta-sandwich fold. Mutations that are associated with early onset-amyloid disease (familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy; FAP) function by destabilizing tetrameric TTR in favour of the monomeric amyloidogenic intermediate which has a rearranged C-strand-loop D-strand region. In most cases the FAP mutations do not significantly alter the native folded structure, but instead act on the denaturation pathway by a mechanism that is not completely understood. Interestingly, mutations have also been characterized which strongly stabilize tetrameric TTR and make amyloid formation very difficult at pHs accessible in vivo.