MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that constitute an essential and evolutionarily conserved mechanism for post-transcriptional gene regulation. Multiple miRNAs have been described to play key roles in T-lymphocyte development, differentiation, and function. In this review, we highlight the current literature regarding the differential expression of miRNAs in various models of murine and human T-cell biology. We emphasize mechanistic understandings of miRNA regulation of thymocyte development, T-cell activation, and differentiation into effector and memory subsets. We describe the participation of miRNAs in complex regulatory circuits shaping T-cell proteomes in a context-dependent manner. It is striking that some miRNAs regulate multiple processes, while others only appear in limited functional contexts. It is also evident that the expression and function of specific miRNAs can differ between murine and human systems. Ultimately, it is not always correct to simplify the complex events of T-cell biology into a model driven by only one or two master regulator miRNAs. In reality, T-cell activation and differentiation involve the expression of multiple miRNAs with many mRNA targets; thus, the true extent of miRNA regulation of T-cell biology is likely far more vast than currently appreciated.