Here we report the development of a baculovirus-based delivery system that enables the efficient incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins in mammalian cells. We have exploited the large cargo-capacity (>30 kb) and stability of the double-stranded DNA genome of baculovirus to deliver to a variety of cell types all of the components required to genetically incorporate novel amino acids. These include the engineered tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair and the nonsense mutant of the target gene. Mammalian cell transduction efficiency of baculovirus was significantly improved by incorporating genetic elements from mammalian viruses. Two polyspecific tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pairs were inserted into this expression system, enabling the site-specific incorporation of a variety of unnatural amino acids with novel chemical and biological properties into proteins.