One way to enhance therapeutic development is through the identification and development of evaluative tools such as biomarkers. This review focuses on putative diagnostic, pharmacodynamic, and predictive biomarkers for smoking cessation. These types of biomarkers may be used to more accurately diagnose a disease, personalize treatment, identify novel targets for drug discovery, and enhance the efficiency of drug development. Promising biomarkers are presented across a range of approaches including metabolism, genetics, and neuroimaging. A preclinical viewpoint is also offered, as are analytical considerations and a regulatory perspective summarizing a pathway toward biomarker qualification.