Progress in understanding the biology of protein fatty acylation has been impeded by the lack of rapid direct detection and identification methods. We first report that a synthetic omega-alkynyl-palmitate analog can be readily and specifically incorporated into GAPDH or mitochondrial 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase in vitro and reacted with an azido-biotin probe or the fluorogenic probe 3-azido-7-hydroxycoumarin using click chemistry for rapid detection by Western blotting or flat bed fluorescence scanning. The acylated cysteine residues were confirmed by MS. Second, omega-alkynyl-palmitate is preferentially incorporated into transiently expressed H- or N-Ras proteins (but not nonpalmitoylated K-Ras), compared with omega-alkynyl-myristate or omega-alkynyl-stearate, via an alkali sensitive thioester bond. Third, omega-alkynyl-myristate is specifically incorporated into endogenous co- and posttranslationally myristoylated proteins. The competitive inhibitors 2-bromopalmitate and 2-hydroxymyristate prevented incorporation of omega-alkynyl-palmitate and omega-alkynyl-myristate into palmitoylated and myristoylated proteins, respectively. Labeling cells with omega-alkynyl-palmitate does not affect membrane association of N-Ras. Furthermore, the palmitoylation of endogenous proteins including H- and N-Ras could be easily detected using omega-alkynyl-palmitate as label in cultured HeLa, Jurkat, and COS-7 cells, and, promisingly, in mice. The omega-alkynyl-myristate and -palmitate analogs used with click chemistry and azido-probes will be invaluable to study protein acylation in vitro, in cells, and in vivo.