Luciferase enzymes catalyze the emission of light from a substrate -- a phenomenon known as bioluminescence -- and have been employed as reporters of many biological functions. Luminescent reporters are much dimmer than fluorescent reporters, and therefore provide relatively modest spatial and temporal resolution. Yet, they are generally more sensitive and less toxic, making them particularly useful for long-term longitudinal studies of living cells, tissues and whole animals. Bioluminescence imaging has proven useful for detecting protein-protein interactions, for tracking cells in vivo, and for monitoring the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of specific genes. Recent applications have included longitudinal monitoring of tumor progression in vivo, and monitoring circadian rhythms with single-cell resolution.