Interference theory refers to the idea that forgetting occurs because the recall of certain items interferes with the recall of other items. Recently, it has been proposed that interference is due to an inhibitory control mechanism, triggered by competing memories, that ultimately causes forgetting [Anderson MC (2003) Rethinking interference theory: Executive control and the mechanisms of forgetting. J Mem Lang 49:415-4453]. In the present research we study the interference process by submitting CD1 mice to two different hippocampal-dependent tasks: a place object recognition task (PORT) and a step-through inhibitory avoidance task (IA). Our results show a mutual interference between PORT and IA. To elucidate the possible neural mechanism underlying the interference process, we submit hippocampus- and prefrontal cortex-lesioned mice to PORT immediately before IA training. Results from these experiments show that prefrontal cortex lesions completely revert the impairing effect exerted by PORT administration on IA memory, while hippocampus lesions, that as expected impair memory for both PORT and IA, increase this effect. Altogether our results suggest that interference-induced forgetting is driven by an inhibitory control mechanism through activation of hippocampus-prefrontal cortex circuitry. The hippocampus seems to be crucial for storing information related to both behavioral tasks. Competition between memories triggers the inhibitory control mechanism, by activating prefrontal cortex, and induces memory suppression.