Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection results in a progressive disease that may end in cirrhosis and, eventually, in hepatocellular carcinoma. In the last several years, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the HCV life cycle and in the development of small molecule compounds for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Nevertheless, the complete understanding of HCV assembly and particle release as well as the detailed characterization and structure of HCV particles is still missing. One of the most important events in the HCV assembly is the nucleocapsid formation which is driven by the core protein, that can oligomerize upon interaction with viral RNA, and is orchestrated by viral and host proteins. Despite a growing number of new factors involved in HCV assembly process, we do not know the three-dimensional structure of the core protein or its topology in the nucleocapsid. Since the core protein contains a hydrophobic C-terminal domain responsible for the binding to cellular membranes, the assembly pathway of HCV virions might proceed via coassembly at endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Recently, new mechanisms involving viral proteins and host factors in HCV particle formation and egress have been described. The present review aims to summarize the advances in our understanding of HCV assembly with an emphasis on the core protein as a structural component of virus particles that possesses the ability to interact with a variety of cellular components and is potentially an attractive target for the development of a novel class of anti-HCV agents.