The discovery of functional long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) coupled with the ever-increasing accessibility of genomic and transcriptomic technology has led to an explosion of functional and mechanistic investigation and discovery into what was once dismissed as junk DNA. Over the past decade, a significant number of lncRNAs have been found to be involved in a diverse array of processes: from epigenetic modulation, both repressive and activating; to protein scaffolding; to miRNA sequestration; to competitive inhibition; and more. The broad character of these mechanisms means that lncRNAs have the potential for regulation across all biological processes-not least of which are immunity and disease. A number of lncRNAs operating within these two contexts have already been identified and characterized, but untold more remain yet to be discovered. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of research on lncRNAs involved in immune modulation and disease, with an emphasis on their mechanism and discovery.