Activated protein C (APC) is a blood protease with anticoagulant activity and cell-signaling activities mediated by the activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (F2R, also known as PAR1) and F2RL1 (also known as PAR3) via noncanonical cleavage. Recombinant variants of APC, such as the 3K3A-APC (Lys191-193Ala) mutant in which three Lys residues (KKK191-193) were replaced with alanine, and/or its other mutants with reduced (>90%) anticoagulant activity, engineered to reduce APC-associated bleeding risk while retaining normal cell-signaling activity, have shown benefits in preclinical models of ischemic stroke, brain trauma, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, sepsis, ischemic and reperfusion injury of heart, kidney and liver, pulmonary, kidney and gastrointestinal inflammation, diabetes and lethal body radiation. On the basis of proof-of-concept studies and an excellent safety profile in humans, 3K3A-APC has advanced to clinical trials as a neuroprotectant in ischemic stroke. Recently, 3K3A-APC has been shown to stimulate neuronal production by human neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs) in vitro via a PAR1-PAR3-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor 1-Akt pathway, which suggests the potential for APC-based treatment as a strategy for structural repair in the human central nervous (CNS) system. Here we report that late postischemic treatment of mice with 3K3A-APC stimulates neuronal production by transplanted human NSCs, promotes circuit restoration and improves functional recovery. Thus, 3K3A-APC-potentiated neuronal recruitment from engrafted NSCs might offer a new approach to the treatment of stroke and related neurological disorders.