Cytosolic calcium oscillations control signaling in animal cells, whereas in plants their importance remains largely unknown. In wild-type Arabidopsis guard cells abscisic acid, oxidative stress, cold, and external calcium elicited cytosolic calcium oscillations of differing amplitudes and frequencies and induced stomatal closure. In guard cells of the V-ATPase mutant det3, external calcium and oxidative stress elicited prolonged calcium increases, which did not oscillate, and stomatal closure was abolished. Conversely, cold and abscisic acid elicited calcium oscillations in det3, and stomatal closure occurred normally. Moreover, in det3 guard cells, experimentally imposing external calcium-induced oscillations rescued stomatal closure. These data provide genetic evidence that stimulus-specific calcium oscillations are necessary for stomatal closure.