Ligation of TLR by distinct pathogen components provides essential signals for T cell priming, although how individual TLR engagement affects primary and memory T cell responses is not well defined. In this study, we demonstrate distinct effects of TLR2 vs TLR4 engagement on primary and memory CD4 T cell responses due to differential effects on APC. Priming of influenza hemagglutinin (HA)-specific naive CD4 T cells with HA peptide and the TLR2 agonist Pam3CysK in vivo resulted in a high frequency of activated HA-specific CD4 T cells that predominantly produced IL-2 and IL-17, whereas priming with HA peptide and the TLR4 agonist LPS yielded a lower frequency of HA-specific CD4 T cells and predominant IFN-gamma producers. TLR2 agonist priming depended on TLR2 expression by APC, as wild-type CD4 T cells did not expand in response to peptide and Pam3CysK in TLR2-deficient hosts. TLR2-mediated priming also led to an increased frequency of Ag-specific memory CD4 T cells compared with TLR4 priming and mediated enhanced secondary responses to influenza challenge. Our results show that TLR engagement on APC influences both primary and secondary CD4 T cell responses, and suggest that long-term functional capacities of T cells are set by innate signals during early phases of an infection.