Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its cognate receptor, TrkB (tropomyosin receptor kinase B), are widely expressed in the brain where they regulate a wide variety of biological processes, including energy homeostasis. However, the specific population(s) of TrkB-expressing neurons through which BDNF governs energy homeostasis remain(s) to be determined. Using the Cre-loxP recombination system, we deleted the mouse TrkB gene in RGS9-2-expressing cells. In this mouse mutant, TrkB expression was abolished in several hypothalamic nuclei, including arcuate nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamus, and lateral hypothalamus. TrkB expression was also abolished in a small number of cells in other brain regions, including the cerebral cortex and striatum. The mutant animals developed hyperphagic obesity with normal energy expenditure. Despite hyperglycemia under fed conditions, these animals exhibited normal fasting blood glucose levels and normal glucose tolerance. These results suggest that BDNF regulates energy homeostasis in part through TrkB-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus.