The vascular endothelium produces both PAs and a PAI. The activities of these components in the circulation must be regulated precisely to ensure that normal vascular homeostasis is not compromised. The blood contains a number of molecules that may function in this way by either promoting or inhibiting the synthesis, release and/or activity of the PAs and PAI. It is clear that the regulation of this system is considerably more complex than previously thought. For example, the initiation of fibrin dissolution is influenced by a number of additional factors including fibrin itself, pro-activators, PAI, platelet components (including the PAI), and possibly by APC generated at the endothelial cell surface. Despite the many recent advances discussed above, little is known about the temporal control of the events leading to plasminogen activation during thrombus formation and dissolution. Obviously, such information must be obtained before more effective treatments of abnormal vascular fibrinolytic activity can be developed. In this chapter, we have described a number of reagents and assays that should aid in the quantification of the PAs and the PAI in plasma. Eventual utilization of these assays in a clinical setting may be valuable for the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of abnormalities of the vascular fibrinolytic system.