Kinetic analysis of the interaction between type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor and vitronectin and evidence that the bovine inhibitor binds to a thrombin-derived amino-terminal fragment of bovine vitronectin
The interaction between guanidine-activated bovine type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and bovine vitronectin was investigated. Activated PAI-1 bound to vitronectin in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and binding was saturable. The dissociation constant (Kd) for this interaction was estimated to be 3.10(-10) mol/l by Scatchard analysis. Complexes of activated PAI-1 and vitronectin were relatively stable at 4 degrees C (T1/2 greater than 24 h), but dissociated with a T1/2 of 4 h at 37 degrees C. The half-life of PAI-1 activity was increased from 2.5 to 4.5 h upon binding to immobilized vitronectin. In order to identify the binding domain(s) in vitronectin for activated PAI-1, the ability of PAI-1 to bind to vitronectin fragments was assessed. Vitronectin was cleaved by thrombin in a dose- and time-dependent manner, generating fragments of Mr 60,000, 54,000 and 38,000. The PAI-1 binding domain(s) were not destroyed by this treatment, since the digested vitronectin competed with immobilized vitronectin for PAI-1 binding to the same extent as uncleaved vitronectin. The thrombin digested vitronectin fragments were fractionated by SDS-PAGE and analyzed by PAI-1 ligand binding. The smallest fragment (Mr 38,000) retained PAI-1 binding function, and sequence analysis demonstrated that this fragment contained the NH2-terminus of bovine vitronectin. These results suggest that the high-affinity binding site for activated PAI-1 is located in the NH2-terminal region of the bovine vitronectin molecule.