Microbial components, such as lipopolysaccharides, augment immune responses by activating Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Some have interpreted this to mean that TLR signalling might not only help to initiate the adaptive immune response, but may also be required for it. The expanded view is shared by Pasare and Medzhitov, who conclude from an analysis of mice deficient in MyD88 (a TLR-signalling adaptor protein) that the generation of T-dependent antigen-specific antibody responses requires activation of TLRs in B cells. However, we show here that robust antibody responses can be elicited even in the absence of TLR signals. This appreciable TLR-independence of immune responses should be taken into account in the rational design of immunogenic and toleragenic vaccines.