We describe the initial characterization of the wheat amyloplast proteome, consisting of the identification and classification of 171 proteins. Whole amyloplasts and purified amyloplast membranes were prepared from wheat (Triticum aestivum). Protein extracts were examined by one-dimensional and two-dimensional electrophoresis, followed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of separated proteins. Tandem mass spectrometry data of individual peptides was then searched by SEQUEST, using a database containing known protein sequences from both wheat and other homologous cereal crops. Using this approach we identified 108 proteins from whole amyloplasts and 63 proteins from purified amyloplast membranes. The majority of protein identifications were derived from protein sequences from cereal crops other than wheat, for which relatively little gene sequence data is available. The highest percentage of protein identifications obtained from any individual species was 46% of the total number of proteins identified, using sequence data found in our proprietary rice (Oryza sativa) genome database.